Research papers on taxonomy of butterflies

Wildlife of Sri Lanka - Wikipedia ], lignin also with syringyl units common [G S lignin, positive Maüle reaction - syringyl:guaiacyl ratio more than 2-2.5:1], hemicelluloses as xyloglucans; root cap meristem closed (open); pith relatively inconspicuous, lateral roots initiated immediately to the side of [when diarch] or opposite xylem poles; origin of epidermis with no clear pattern [probably from inner layer of root cap], trichoblasts [differentiated root hair-forming cells] 0, hypodermis suberised and with Casparian strip [= exodermis]; shoot apex with tunica-corpus construction, tunica 2-layered; starch grains simple; primary cell wall mostly with pectic polysaccharides, poor in mannans; tracheid:tracheid [end wall] plates with scalariform pitting, wood parenchyma ; sieve tubes enucleate, sieve plate with pores (0.1-)0.5-10; protoplasm dessication tolerant [plant poikilohydric]; stomata randomly oriented, brachyparacytic [ends of subsidiary cells level with ends of pore], outer stomatal ledges producing vestibule, reduction in stomatal conductance with increasing CO concentration; lamina formed from the primordial leaf apex, margins toothed, development of venation acropetal, overall growth ± diffuse, secondary veins pinnate, fine venation hierarchical-reticulate, (1.7-)4.1(-5.7) mm/mm, vein endings free; flowers perfect, pedicellate, ± haplomorphic, protogynous; parts free, numbers variable, development centripetal; T , petal-like, each with a single trace, outer members not sharply differentiated from the others, not enclosing the floral bud; A many, filament not sharply distinguished from anther, stout, broad, with a single trace, anther introrse, tetrasporangiate, sporangia in two groups of two [dithecal], each theca dehiscing longitudinally by a common slit, ± embedded in the filament, walls with at least outer secondary parietal cells dividing, endothecium , cells elongated at right angles to long axis of anther; tapetal cells binucleate; microspore mother cells in a block, microsporogenesis successive, walls developing by centripetal furrowing; pollen subspherical, tectum continuous or microperforate, ektexine columellate, endexine lamellate only in the apertural regions, thin, compact, intine in apertural areas thick, orbicules , pollenkitt ; nectary 0; carpels present, superior, free, several, spiral, ascidiate [postgenital occlusion by secretion], stylulus at most short [shorter than ovary], hollow, cavity not lined by distinct epidermal layer, stigma ± decurrent, carinal, dry; suprastylar extragynoecial compitum ; ovules few [? This is partly because homoplasy is very common, in addition, basic information for all too many characters is very incomplete, frequently coming from taxa well embedded in the clade of interest and so making the position of any putative apomorphy uncertain. (2001) date crown-group Fabales to (83-)79, 74(-71) m.y.a.; other estimates are (90-)87(-84) or (75-)72(-69) m.y. 2009) and the ant's invertase is inhibited by chitinase, a major protein in the extrafloral nectar (Heil et al. Complex interactions between protease inhibitors in the plant and proteases in insects may help deter other than the mutualist ants from eating the Beltian bodies (Orono-Tamayo et al. Nucleotide substitution rates in the IRLC tend to be lower than in taxa with the IR (Schwarz et al. Genome evolution in taxa of the ILRC has also been considerable (Magee et al. Some of the mimosoid clade and Faboideae have leaves that are rich in silica (Westbrook et al. Colleters have been reported from "Caesalpinioideae", especially Chamaecrista (Coutinho et al. Inflorescences in a few related tribes in Faboideae are pseudoracemes, that is, the main inflorescence axis is indeterminate, but the flowers are in groups - often three, but up to twelve or so in a more or less fasciculate arrangement (Tucker 1987b, 2006; Teixeira et al. The parts of the flowers of most Fabaceae usually develop in unusual sequences, often sepals-carpels-petals-outer stamens-inner stamens, and there are other distinctive features of their development (e.g. When there is the complete loss of individual floral structures in evolution, floral development can be greatly changed (Tucker 1988, 2000), although, as Bruneau et al. (2015) found the relationships [Indigofereae [Clitorieae [Phaseoleae, etc. (2009: eight chloroplast genes) concentrated on relationships among the some 2,000 species of phaseoloids, finding substantial resolution, i.a. (2009) disentangle relationships within the tribe, finding considerable phylogenetic structure (i.a. (2013) carried out a quite detailed analysis of Phaseolineae in which ¾ genera were included. Authorities Department of Forest Conservation Department of Wildlife Conservation Civil societies Field Ornithology Group

JSTOR Viewing Subject Biological Sciences 1]/carpel, marginal, anatropous, bitegmic, micropyle endostomal, outer integument 2-3 cells across, often largely subdermal in origin, inner integument 2-3 cells across, often dermal in origin, parietal tissue 1-3 cells across, nucellar cap? Then there are the not-so-trivial issues of how character states are delimited and ancestral states are reconstructed (see above). (penalized likelihood dates), Bayesian relaxed clock estimates being slightly older, (107.1-)104, 101.7(-91.6) m.y. 2013; see Rubin and Moreau 2016 for interaction between molecular evolution and mutualism in Pseudomyrmex). (2014) noted, in Detarioideae organs in one whorl can be lost without much affecting the development of the rest of the flower - as with the complete loss of a calyx member in Duparquetia and Goniorrhachis (Prenner & Klitgaard 2008b; Prenner & Cardoso 2016). [Abreae [Diocleeae Millettieae]]], although details of the relationships obtained depended on the markers used (Egan et al. Mucuna sister to Desmodium and its relatives, the combined clade being sister to the rest of the group, which also includes Cajanus, Vigna, Erythrina, and so on. there are four major clades within Indigofera) that can be linked with both morphology and ecology. For a phylogeny of Phaseolus itself, see Delgado-Salinas et al. Of other Phaseoleae, Vigna has to be dismembered (Delgado-Salinas et al. (2017) examined relationships here; several genea, including Desmodium came out in more than one place in the tree, and there was some conflict between topologies obtained from nuclear and chloroplast markers. (2018) included species of the tribe in their analysis. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.

Gender - Wikipedia Pirani & Prado Gametophyte dominant, independent, multicellular, initially ±globular, not motile, branched; showing gravitropism; acquisition of phenylalanine lysase* [PAL], flavonoid synthesis*, microbial terpene synthase-like genes , triterpenoids produced by CYP716 enzymes, CYP73 and phenylpropanoid metabolism [development of phenolic network], xyloglucans in primary cell wall, side chains charged; plant poikilohydrous [protoplasm dessication tolerant], ectohydrous [free water outside plant physiologically important]; thalloid, leafy, with single-celled apical meristem, tissues little differentiated, rhizoids , unicellular; chloroplasts several per cell, pyrenoids 0; glycolate metabolism in leaf peroxisomes [glyoxysomes]; centrioles/centrosomes in vegetative cells 0, microtubules with γ-tubulin along their lengths [? Relationships remained unclear in the study by Soltis et al. Bello returned to the problem and included morphological data with a two-gene data set. The "normal" (for flowering plants) floral orientation of the mimosoid clade with the median sepal adaxial and the median petal abaxial is secondary; in some 4-merous members of the mimosoid clade the median petal is adaxial (Prenner 2011). 2017), and papilionoid flowers have evolved at least five times in the family (Bukhari et al. Endress (2012) suggested that floral symmetry was a key innovation in Phaseoleae - here the keel is rather like a trunk. Changes in diversification rates of clades in the family can quite frequently be linked to biome shifts (Koenen et al. Fabaceae, many of which are deciduous, are very important components of the vegetation of seasonally dry tropical forests (= the succulent biome) and savannas (Oliveira-Filho et al. 2015; Pennington & Lavin 2016: stem ages of species tend to be old in such habitats), and in the neotropics species diversity of Fabaceae is correlated with temperature (Punyasena et al. Long distance dispersal has often been invoked to explain distributions in Fabaceae, and Schaefer et al. The majority of the species are New World, but there is a single Old World species, H. Both the Mexican and Dominican ambers seem to have been produced by extinct species whose immediate relationships are likely to be with the Old World H. Indeed, some 16 (7% of the total) American-amphitropical disjuncts occur in Fabaceae (Simpson et al. Cercidoideae may be Tethyan in origin, initially favouring seasonally dry habitat (Sinou et al. For monomorphic (different enantiomorphs on the one plant) and dimorphic enantiostyly here, see Almeida et al. Westerkamp (2004) suggests that in some species of both Senna and Chamaecrista the orientation of the anthers is such that the pollen ejected when the flower is vibrated initially misses the bee entirely, but it bounces off the petals and then lands on the bee's back - whence it is removed by the stigma; enantiostyly is an integral part of this remarkable pollination mechanism. The some 105 species of the pantropical/warm temperate Erythrina are pollinated by perching (sun) and hovering (humming) birds. Phylogenetic relationships within Medicago have turned out to be highly reticulating (de Sousa et al. These have recently been published (Legume Phylogeny Working Group 2017), and i.a. (2011); the limits of Derris have been redrawn (Sirichamorn et al. Unique combinations of floral characters can be used to recognize genera around Crotalaria (Le Roux & van Wyk 2012). (2005a, b) for the expanded generic limits of Pultenaea. (2012) suggest that one solution to the unexpected phylogenetic relationships they found in Fabeae might be to include Lens in Vicia and Pisum in Lathyrus... (2018) provide a tribal classification of Detarioideae, which is followed above. (2013b) list the early-branching clades of Faboideae, i.e., those below the NPAAA clade, as well as the genera and numbers of species that they contain. Fabaceae have also been linked with Sapindaceae (e.g. 5 [list]/8 Mostly Australian, also Mexico and the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica (Recchia); Suriana maritima pantropical (map: from van Steenis & van Balgooy 1966 [blue - Suriana maritima]; Flora Base xi.2010). Crown-group Surianaceae are some (50.4-)38.7(-27.0) m.y. (2007/8: Suriana only), and for seed coat anatomy, see Gama-Arachchige et al. Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex i.e. the state of being male, female, or an intersex variation, sex-based social structures i.e. gender roles, or gender identity. Traditionally, people who identify as men or women or use masculine or.

Bloom Taxonomy - Research Paper - here], interphase microtubules form hoop-like system; metaphase spindle anastral, predictive preprophase band [with microtubules and F-actin; where new cell wall will form], phragmoplast [cell wall deposition centrifugal, from around the anaphase spindle], plasmodesmata ; antheridia and archegonia , jacketed*, surficial; blepharoplast , centrioles develop de novo, bicentriole pair coaxial, separate at midpoint, centrioles rotate, associated with basal bodies of cilia, multilayered structure [4 layers: L1, L4, tubules; L2, L3, short vertical lamellae] (0), spline [tubules from L1 encircling spermatid], basal body 200-250 nm long, associated with amorphous electron-dense material, microtubules in basal end lacking symmetry, stellate array of filaments in transition zone extended, axonemal cap 0 [microtubules disorganized at apex of cilium]; male gametes [spermatozoids] with a left-handed coil, cilia 2, lateral; oogamy; sporophyte *, multicellular, growth 3-dimensional*, cuticle *, plane of first cell division transverse [with respect to long axis of archegonium/embryo sac], sporangium and upper part of seta developing from epibasal cell [towards the archegonial neck, exoscopic], with at least transient apical cell [? In various analyses [S Q] were usually at least moderately supported, but support for Fabaceae and Polygalaceae as being successively sister to that pair was weak (Bello et al. Although the normal orientation is also found in Caesalpinioideae like Ceratonia, the inverted orientation occurs in Cercidoideae (see Tucker 1989; Herendeen et al. 2005), Duparquetia, many Caesalpinioideae, and Faboideae. Duparquetia, near basal in the family, has a highly derived rather papilionoid-looking (but quite differently constructed) flower, while in the Faboideae there are a number of near basal clades that include both taxa with polysymmetric flowers and numerous stamens and taxa with papilionoid flowers (e.g. One way to think about the diversification of Fabaceae and their distribution is in terms of vicariance of biomes rather than of the classical geographical areas (Lavin et al. (2012) estimated that there had been as many as 7 long distance dispersal events per 10 million years in Fabeae alone. Both floral morphology and how the flowers and inflorescences are held varies according the requirements of these different visitors, and there may have been four or more shifts from passerine to hummingbird pollination in the genus, interestingly a number of New World taxa are pollinated by perching birds (orioles, honeycreepers), and their morphology and nectar composition differs from those of the hummingbird-pollinated species (Steiner 1979; Bruneau 1997; Mabberley 2017: summary). is a single-carpellate fruit that dehisces explosively, the two valves of the carpel twisting as they separate down both sides. Within Trifolium the American species form a monophyletic group (Ellison et al. 2016 and references), and the genus perhaps includes Trigonella; for its limits, see Bena (2001), Steele et al. the old Mimosoideae are now to be refered to as "the mimosoid clade" pending clarification of their relationships. (2013) provide a linear sequence of legume genera recognised as of March, 2013. For a sectional classification of the neotropical Swartzia, see Torke and Mansano (2009), for that of an expanded Cytisus, see Cristofilini and Troia (2006), for that of the pantropical Crotalaria, see le Roux et al. ): "Maintaining most familiar generic names and adding relatively few additional segregates that are, for the most part, fairly readily recognizable" seeems best Thompson (2001) provides a careful study of E. Dickison 1981b), here in the malvids, but there is little support other than the common possession of compound leaves and non-protein amino acids for such an association, and with Connaraceae, here in Oxalidales. There has been as much diversification of the ycf4 protein, involved in photosystem 1 assembly, within Lathyrus as there has been between cyanobacteria and other angiosperms (Magee et al. The seeds of Mora megistosperma (Caesalpinieae) are, at ca 18 x 12 cm, perhaps the largest of any broad-leaved angiosperm (Lewis et al. Bloom Taxonomy This Research Paper Bloom Taxonomy and other 64,000+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on Autor review • December 10, 2010 • Research Paper • 1,675 Words 7 Pages • 818 Views

Butterflies - Mimicry = unitegmic ovule, cupule = integument]; pollen lands on ovule; megasporangium indehiscent, megaspore germination endosporic [female gametophyte initially retained on the plant]. (2015) recovered the relationships [Fab [R [C Fag]]] with very good generic sampling while L. it is absent from the chloroplast), but other members of the order have not been studied and its presence in other angiosperms is sporadic (J. Such nectaries have possibly evolved some 35 times, and have also subsequently been lost and even regained (e.g. The close association of Pseudomyrmex ants with some members of the old Acacia subgenus Acacia (= Vachellia), including American swollen-thorn acacias such as V. The plant provides protein-rich Beltian bodies at the ends of each leaflet (for their development, see Rickson 1969: the leaves have notably many leaflets, even for Acacia s.l.) as food for the ants, and the ants also take nectar from the petiolar extrafloral nectaries; the swollen stipular thorns serve as their homes. ORF 184 has been lost many times, especially in the MILL clade, and acc D (= ORF 512, zpf A) has also been lost (Doyle et al. Both the rps16 and ycf4 genes are lost in many Faboideae (Doyle et al. 2007), the former being absent in all members of the IRL clade, but also being lost in four other clades in Faboideae (Schwarz et al. For information on the domestication of soybean (Glycine max), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), pea (Pisum sativum), the azuki bean (Vigna angularis) and relatives, see papers in Ann. For the peanut, Arachis hypogea, an allopolyploid with A. ipaënsis as its probable parents, see Krapovikas and Gregory (1994), for its domestication, see Dillehay et al. (2010), for much information on alfafa, Medicago sativa, see Small (2011), and for the relatives of soybean, see Sherman-Broyles et al. Isoflavonoids, restricted to Faboideae, are involved in plant defence (phytoalexins) and may also play a role in nodulation (Hegnauer & Grayer-Barkmeijer 1993; Reynaud et al. Flavonoids lacking the 5-hydroxy group are characteristic of Fabaceae (Seigler 2003), but I do not know at what level they might be apomorphic. At the base of the clade relationships are [Glycyrrhiza [Wisteria s.l. Mimicry As discussed previously, unpalatable butterflies often have prominent patterns. Experiments have shown that some avian predators can memorise these patterns and learn to avoid eating similarly patterned species in the future.

|| Wildlife of Sri Lanka - Wikipedia

Wildlife of Sri Lanka - Wikipedia ], lignin also with syringyl units common [G S lignin, positive Maüle reaction - syringyl:guaiacyl ratio more than 2-2.5:1], hemicelluloses as xyloglucans; root cap meristem closed (open); pith relatively inconspicuous, lateral roots initiated immediately to the side of [when diarch] or opposite xylem poles; origin of epidermis with no clear pattern [probably from inner layer of root cap], trichoblasts [differentiated root hair-forming cells] 0, hypodermis suberised and with Casparian strip [= exodermis]; shoot apex with tunica-corpus construction, tunica 2-layered; starch grains simple; primary cell wall mostly with pectic polysaccharides, poor in mannans; tracheid:tracheid [end wall] plates with scalariform pitting, wood parenchyma ; sieve tubes enucleate, sieve plate with pores (0.1-)0.5-10; protoplasm dessication tolerant [plant poikilohydric]; stomata randomly oriented, brachyparacytic [ends of subsidiary cells level with ends of pore], outer stomatal ledges producing vestibule, reduction in stomatal conductance with increasing CO concentration; lamina formed from the primordial leaf apex, margins toothed, development of venation acropetal, overall growth ± diffuse, secondary veins pinnate, fine venation hierarchical-reticulate, (1.7-)4.1(-5.7) mm/mm, vein endings free; flowers perfect, pedicellate, ± haplomorphic, protogynous; parts free, numbers variable, development centripetal; T , petal-like, each with a single trace, outer members not sharply differentiated from the others, not enclosing the floral bud; A many, filament not sharply distinguished from anther, stout, broad, with a single trace, anther introrse, tetrasporangiate, sporangia in two groups of two [dithecal], each theca dehiscing longitudinally by a common slit, ± embedded in the filament, walls with at least outer secondary parietal cells dividing, endothecium , cells elongated at right angles to long axis of anther; tapetal cells binucleate; microspore mother cells in a block, microsporogenesis successive, walls developing by centripetal furrowing; pollen subspherical, tectum continuous or microperforate, ektexine columellate, endexine lamellate only in the apertural regions, thin, compact, intine in apertural areas thick, orbicules , pollenkitt ; nectary 0; carpels present, superior, free, several, spiral, ascidiate [postgenital occlusion by secretion], stylulus at most short [shorter than ovary], hollow, cavity not lined by distinct epidermal layer, stigma ± decurrent, carinal, dry; suprastylar extragynoecial compitum ; ovules few [? This is partly because homoplasy is very common, in addition, basic information for all too many characters is very incomplete, frequently coming from taxa well embedded in the clade of interest and so making the position of any putative apomorphy uncertain. (2001) date crown-group Fabales to (83-)79, 74(-71) m.y.a.; other estimates are (90-)87(-84) or (75-)72(-69) m.y. 2009) and the ant's invertase is inhibited by chitinase, a major protein in the extrafloral nectar (Heil et al. Complex interactions between protease inhibitors in the plant and proteases in insects may help deter other than the mutualist ants from eating the Beltian bodies (Orono-Tamayo et al. Nucleotide substitution rates in the IRLC tend to be lower than in taxa with the IR (Schwarz et al. Genome evolution in taxa of the ILRC has also been considerable (Magee et al. Some of the mimosoid clade and Faboideae have leaves that are rich in silica (Westbrook et al. Colleters have been reported from "Caesalpinioideae", especially Chamaecrista (Coutinho et al. Inflorescences in a few related tribes in Faboideae are pseudoracemes, that is, the main inflorescence axis is indeterminate, but the flowers are in groups - often three, but up to twelve or so in a more or less fasciculate arrangement (Tucker 1987b, 2006; Teixeira et al. The parts of the flowers of most Fabaceae usually develop in unusual sequences, often sepals-carpels-petals-outer stamens-inner stamens, and there are other distinctive features of their development (e.g. When there is the complete loss of individual floral structures in evolution, floral development can be greatly changed (Tucker 1988, 2000), although, as Bruneau et al. (2015) found the relationships [Indigofereae [Clitorieae [Phaseoleae, etc. (2009: eight chloroplast genes) concentrated on relationships among the some 2,000 species of phaseoloids, finding substantial resolution, i.a. (2009) disentangle relationships within the tribe, finding considerable phylogenetic structure (i.a. (2013) carried out a quite detailed analysis of Phaseolineae in which ¾ genera were included. Authorities Department of Forest Conservation Department of Wildlife Conservation Civil societies Field Ornithology Group

JSTOR Viewing Subject Biological Sciences

JSTOR Viewing Subject Biological Sciences 1]/carpel, marginal, anatropous, bitegmic, micropyle endostomal, outer integument 2-3 cells across, often largely subdermal in origin, inner integument 2-3 cells across, often dermal in origin, parietal tissue 1-3 cells across, nucellar cap? Then there are the not-so-trivial issues of how character states are delimited and ancestral states are reconstructed (see above). (penalized likelihood dates), Bayesian relaxed clock estimates being slightly older, (107.1-)104, 101.7(-91.6) m.y. 2013; see Rubin and Moreau 2016 for interaction between molecular evolution and mutualism in Pseudomyrmex). (2014) noted, in Detarioideae organs in one whorl can be lost without much affecting the development of the rest of the flower - as with the complete loss of a calyx member in Duparquetia and Goniorrhachis (Prenner & Klitgaard 2008b; Prenner & Cardoso 2016). [Abreae [Diocleeae Millettieae]]]]], although details of the relationships obtained depended on the markers used (Egan et al. Mucuna sister to Desmodium and its relatives, the combined clade being sister to the rest of the group, which also includes Cajanus, Vigna, Erythrina, and so on. there are four major clades within Indigofera) that can be linked with both morphology and ecology. For a phylogeny of Phaseolus itself, see Delgado-Salinas et al. Of other Phaseoleae, Vigna has to be dismembered (Delgado-Salinas et al. (2017) examined relationships here; several genea, including Desmodium came out in more than one place in the tree, and there was some conflict between topologies obtained from nuclear and chloroplast markers. (2018) included species of the tribe in their analysis. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.

Gender - Wikipedia

Gender - Wikipedia Pirani & Prado Gametophyte dominant, independent, multicellular, initially ±globular, not motile, branched; showing gravitropism; acquisition of phenylalanine lysase* [PAL], flavonoid synthesis*, microbial terpene synthase-like genes , triterpenoids produced by CYP716 enzymes, CYP73 and phenylpropanoid metabolism [development of phenolic network], xyloglucans in primary cell wall, side chains charged; plant poikilohydrous [protoplasm dessication tolerant], ectohydrous [free water outside plant physiologically important]; thalloid, leafy, with single-celled apical meristem, tissues little differentiated, rhizoids , unicellular; chloroplasts several per cell, pyrenoids 0; glycolate metabolism in leaf peroxisomes [glyoxysomes]; centrioles/centrosomes in vegetative cells 0, microtubules with γ-tubulin along their lengths [? Relationships remained unclear in the study by Soltis et al. Bello returned to the problem and included morphological data with a two-gene data set. The "normal" (for flowering plants) floral orientation of the mimosoid clade with the median sepal adaxial and the median petal abaxial is secondary; in some 4-merous members of the mimosoid clade the median petal is adaxial (Prenner 2011). 2017), and papilionoid flowers have evolved at least five times in the family (Bukhari et al. Endress (2012) suggested that floral symmetry was a key innovation in Phaseoleae - here the keel is rather like a trunk. Changes in diversification rates of clades in the family can quite frequently be linked to biome shifts (Koenen et al. Fabaceae, many of which are deciduous, are very important components of the vegetation of seasonally dry tropical forests (= the succulent biome) and savannas (Oliveira-Filho et al. 2015; Pennington & Lavin 2016: stem ages of species tend to be old in such habitats), and in the neotropics species diversity of Fabaceae is correlated with temperature (Punyasena et al. Long distance dispersal has often been invoked to explain distributions in Fabaceae, and Schaefer et al. The majority of the species are New World, but there is a single Old World species, H. Both the Mexican and Dominican ambers seem to have been produced by extinct species whose immediate relationships are likely to be with the Old World H. Indeed, some 16 (7% of the total) American-amphitropical disjuncts occur in Fabaceae (Simpson et al. Cercidoideae may be Tethyan in origin, initially favouring seasonally dry habitat (Sinou et al. For monomorphic (different enantiomorphs on the one plant) and dimorphic enantiostyly here, see Almeida et al. Westerkamp (2004) suggests that in some species of both Senna and Chamaecrista the orientation of the anthers is such that the pollen ejected when the flower is vibrated initially misses the bee entirely, but it bounces off the petals and then lands on the bee's back - whence it is removed by the stigma; enantiostyly is an integral part of this remarkable pollination mechanism. The some 105 species of the pantropical/warm temperate Erythrina are pollinated by perching (sun) and hovering (humming) birds. Phylogenetic relationships within Medicago have turned out to be highly reticulating (de Sousa et al. These have recently been published (Legume Phylogeny Working Group 2017), and i.a. (2011); the limits of Derris have been redrawn (Sirichamorn et al. Unique combinations of floral characters can be used to recognize genera around Crotalaria (Le Roux & van Wyk 2012). (2005a, b) for the expanded generic limits of Pultenaea. (2012) suggest that one solution to the unexpected phylogenetic relationships they found in Fabeae might be to include Lens in Vicia and Pisum in Lathyrus... (2018) provide a tribal classification of Detarioideae, which is followed above. (2013b) list the early-branching clades of Faboideae, i.e., those below the NPAAA clade, as well as the genera and numbers of species that they contain. Fabaceae have also been linked with Sapindaceae (e.g. 5 [list]/8 Mostly Australian, also Mexico and the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica (Recchia); Suriana maritima pantropical (map: from van Steenis & van Balgooy 1966 [blue - Suriana maritima]; Flora Base xi.2010). Crown-group Surianaceae are some (50.4-)38.7(-27.0) m.y. (2007/8: Suriana only), and for seed coat anatomy, see Gama-Arachchige et al. Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex i.e. the state of being male, female, or an intersex variation, sex-based social structures i.e. gender roles, or gender identity. Traditionally, people who identify as men or women or use masculine or.

Bloom Taxonomy - Research Paper -

Bloom Taxonomy - Research Paper - here], interphase microtubules form hoop-like system; metaphase spindle anastral, predictive preprophase band [with microtubules and F-actin; where new cell wall will form], phragmoplast [cell wall deposition centrifugal, from around the anaphase spindle], plasmodesmata ; antheridia and archegonia , jacketed*, surficial; blepharoplast , centrioles develop de novo, bicentriole pair coaxial, separate at midpoint, centrioles rotate, associated with basal bodies of cilia, multilayered structure [4 layers: L1, L4, tubules; L2, L3, short vertical lamellae] (0), spline [tubules from L1 encircling spermatid], basal body 200-250 nm long, associated with amorphous electron-dense material, microtubules in basal end lacking symmetry, stellate array of filaments in transition zone extended, axonemal cap 0 [microtubules disorganized at apex of cilium]; male gametes [spermatozoids] with a left-handed coil, cilia 2, lateral; oogamy; sporophyte *, multicellular, growth 3-dimensional*, cuticle *, plane of first cell division transverse [with respect to long axis of archegonium/embryo sac], sporangium and upper part of seta developing from epibasal cell [towards the archegonial neck, exoscopic], with at least transient apical cell [? In various analyses [S Q] were usually at least moderately supported, but support for Fabaceae and Polygalaceae as being successively sister to that pair was weak (Bello et al. Although the normal orientation is also found in Caesalpinioideae like Ceratonia, the inverted orientation occurs in Cercidoideae (see Tucker 1989; Herendeen et al. 2005), Duparquetia, many Caesalpinioideae, and Faboideae. Duparquetia, near basal in the family, has a highly derived rather papilionoid-looking (but quite differently constructed) flower, while in the Faboideae there are a number of near basal clades that include both taxa with polysymmetric flowers and numerous stamens and taxa with papilionoid flowers (e.g. One way to think about the diversification of Fabaceae and their distribution is in terms of vicariance of biomes rather than of the classical geographical areas (Lavin et al. (2012) estimated that there had been as many as 7 long distance dispersal events per 10 million years in Fabeae alone. Both floral morphology and how the flowers and inflorescences are held varies according the requirements of these different visitors, and there may have been four or more shifts from passerine to hummingbird pollination in the genus, interestingly a number of New World taxa are pollinated by perching birds (orioles, honeycreepers), and their morphology and nectar composition differs from those of the hummingbird-pollinated species (Steiner 1979; Bruneau 1997; Mabberley 2017: summary). is a single-carpellate fruit that dehisces explosively, the two valves of the carpel twisting as they separate down both sides. Within Trifolium the American species form a monophyletic group (Ellison et al. 2016 and references), and the genus perhaps includes Trigonella; for its limits, see Bena (2001), Steele et al. the old Mimosoideae are now to be refered to as "the mimosoid clade" pending clarification of their relationships. (2013) provide a linear sequence of legume genera recognised as of March, 2013. For a sectional classification of the neotropical Swartzia, see Torke and Mansano (2009), for that of an expanded Cytisus, see Cristofilini and Troia (2006), for that of the pantropical Crotalaria, see le Roux et al. ): "Maintaining most familiar generic names and adding relatively few additional segregates that are, for the most part, fairly readily recognizable" seeems best Thompson (2001) provides a careful study of E. Dickison 1981b), here in the malvids, but there is little support other than the common possession of compound leaves and non-protein amino acids for such an association, and with Connaraceae, here in Oxalidales. There has been as much diversification of the ycf4 protein, involved in photosystem 1 assembly, within Lathyrus as there has been between cyanobacteria and other angiosperms (Magee et al. The seeds of Mora megistosperma (Caesalpinieae) are, at ca 18 x 12 cm, perhaps the largest of any broad-leaved angiosperm (Lewis et al. Bloom Taxonomy This Research Paper Bloom Taxonomy and other 64,000+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on Autor review • December 10, 2010 • Research Paper • 1,675 Words 7 Pages • 818 Views

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Wildlife of Sri Lanka - Wikipedia ], lignin also with syringyl units common [G S lignin, positive Maüle reaction - syringyl:guaiacyl ratio more than 2-2.5:1], hemicelluloses as xyloglucans; root cap meristem closed (open); pith relatively inconspicuous, lateral roots initiated immediately to the side of [when diarch] or opposite xylem poles; origin of epidermis with no clear pattern [probably from inner layer of root cap], trichoblasts [differentiated root hair-forming cells] 0, hypodermis suberised and with Casparian strip [= exodermis]; shoot apex with tunica-corpus construction, tunica 2-layered; starch grains simple; primary cell wall mostly with pectic polysaccharides, poor in mannans; tracheid:tracheid [end wall] plates with scalariform pitting, wood parenchyma ; sieve tubes enucleate, sieve plate with pores (0.1-)0.5-10; protoplasm dessication tolerant [plant poikilohydric]; stomata randomly oriented, brachyparacytic [ends of subsidiary cells level with ends of pore], outer stomatal ledges producing vestibule, reduction in stomatal conductance with increasing CO concentration; lamina formed from the primordial leaf apex, margins toothed, development of venation acropetal, overall growth ± diffuse, secondary veins pinnate, fine venation hierarchical-reticulate, (1.7-)4.1(-5.7) mm/mm, vein endings free; flowers perfect, pedicellate, ± haplomorphic, protogynous; parts free, numbers variable, development centripetal; T , petal-like, each with a single trace, outer members not sharply differentiated from the others, not enclosing the floral bud; A many, filament not sharply distinguished from anther, stout, broad, with a single trace, anther introrse, tetrasporangiate, sporangia in two groups of two [dithecal], each theca dehiscing longitudinally by a common slit, ± embedded in the filament, walls with at least outer secondary parietal cells dividing, endothecium , cells elongated at right angles to long axis of anther; tapetal cells binucleate; microspore mother cells in a block, microsporogenesis successive, walls developing by centripetal furrowing; pollen subspherical, tectum continuous or microperforate, ektexine columellate, endexine lamellate only in the apertural regions, thin, compact, intine in apertural areas thick, orbicules , pollenkitt ; nectary 0; carpels present, superior, free, several, spiral, ascidiate [postgenital occlusion by secretion], stylulus at most short [shorter than ovary], hollow, cavity not lined by distinct epidermal layer, stigma ± decurrent, carinal, dry; suprastylar extragynoecial compitum ; ovules few [? This is partly because homoplasy is very common, in addition, basic information for all too many characters is very incomplete, frequently coming from taxa well embedded in the clade of interest and so making the position of any putative apomorphy uncertain. (2001) date crown-group Fabales to (83-)79, 74(-71) m.y.a.; other estimates are (90-)87(-84) or (75-)72(-69) m.y. 2009) and the ant's invertase is inhibited by chitinase, a major protein in the extrafloral nectar (Heil et al. Complex interactions between protease inhibitors in the plant and proteases in insects may help deter other than the mutualist ants from eating the Beltian bodies (Orono-Tamayo et al. Nucleotide substitution rates in the IRLC tend to be lower than in taxa with the IR (Schwarz et al. Genome evolution in taxa of the ILRC has also been considerable (Magee et al. Some of the mimosoid clade and Faboideae have leaves that are rich in silica (Westbrook et al. Colleters have been reported from "Caesalpinioideae", especially Chamaecrista (Coutinho et al. Inflorescences in a few related tribes in Faboideae are pseudoracemes, that is, the main inflorescence axis is indeterminate, but the flowers are in groups - often three, but up to twelve or so in a more or less fasciculate arrangement (Tucker 1987b, 2006; Teixeira et al. The parts of the flowers of most Fabaceae usually develop in unusual sequences, often sepals-carpels-petals-outer stamens-inner stamens, and there are other distinctive features of their development (e.g. When there is the complete loss of individual floral structures in evolution, floral development can be greatly changed (Tucker 1988, 2000), although, as Bruneau et al. (2015) found the relationships [Indigofereae [Clitorieae [Phaseoleae, etc. (2009: eight chloroplast genes) concentrated on relationships among the some 2,000 species of phaseoloids, finding substantial resolution, i.a. (2009) disentangle relationships within the tribe, finding considerable phylogenetic structure (i.a. (2013) carried out a quite detailed analysis of Phaseolineae in which ¾ genera were included. Authorities Department of Forest Conservation Department of Wildlife Conservation Civil societies Field Ornithology Group

JSTOR Viewing Subject Biological Sciences 1]/carpel, marginal, anatropous, bitegmic, micropyle endostomal, outer integument 2-3 cells across, often largely subdermal in origin, inner integument 2-3 cells across, often dermal in origin, parietal tissue 1-3 cells across, nucellar cap? Then there are the not-so-trivial issues of how character states are delimited and ancestral states are reconstructed (see above). (penalized likelihood dates), Bayesian relaxed clock estimates being slightly older, (107.1-)104, 101.7(-91.6) m.y. 2013; see Rubin and Moreau 2016 for interaction between molecular evolution and mutualism in Pseudomyrmex). (2014) noted, in Detarioideae organs in one whorl can be lost without much affecting the development of the rest of the flower - as with the complete loss of a calyx member in Duparquetia and Goniorrhachis (Prenner & Klitgaard 2008b; Prenner & Cardoso 2016). [Abreae [Diocleeae Millettieae]]]]], although details of the relationships obtained depended on the markers used (Egan et al. Mucuna sister to Desmodium and its relatives, the combined clade being sister to the rest of the group, which also includes Cajanus, Vigna, Erythrina, and so on. there are four major clades within Indigofera) that can be linked with both morphology and ecology. For a phylogeny of Phaseolus itself, see Delgado-Salinas et al. Of other Phaseoleae, Vigna has to be dismembered (Delgado-Salinas et al. (2017) examined relationships here; several genea, including Desmodium came out in more than one place in the tree, and there was some conflict between topologies obtained from nuclear and chloroplast markers. (2018) included species of the tribe in their analysis. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.

Gender - Wikipedia Pirani & Prado Gametophyte dominant, independent, multicellular, initially ±globular, not motile, branched; showing gravitropism; acquisition of phenylalanine lysase* [PAL], flavonoid synthesis*, microbial terpene synthase-like genes , triterpenoids produced by CYP716 enzymes, CYP73 and phenylpropanoid metabolism [development of phenolic network], xyloglucans in primary cell wall, side chains charged; plant poikilohydrous [protoplasm dessication tolerant], ectohydrous [free water outside plant physiologically important]; thalloid, leafy, with single-celled apical meristem, tissues little differentiated, rhizoids , unicellular; chloroplasts several per cell, pyrenoids 0; glycolate metabolism in leaf peroxisomes [glyoxysomes]; centrioles/centrosomes in vegetative cells 0, microtubules with γ-tubulin along their lengths [? Relationships remained unclear in the study by Soltis et al. Bello returned to the problem and included morphological data with a two-gene data set. The "normal" (for flowering plants) floral orientation of the mimosoid clade with the median sepal adaxial and the median petal abaxial is secondary; in some 4-merous members of the mimosoid clade the median petal is adaxial (Prenner 2011). 2017), and papilionoid flowers have evolved at least five times in the family (Bukhari et al. Endress (2012) suggested that floral symmetry was a key innovation in Phaseoleae - here the keel is rather like a trunk. Changes in diversification rates of clades in the family can quite frequently be linked to biome shifts (Koenen et al. Fabaceae, many of which are deciduous, are very important components of the vegetation of seasonally dry tropical forests (= the succulent biome) and savannas (Oliveira-Filho et al. 2015; Pennington & Lavin 2016: stem ages of species tend to be old in such habitats), and in the neotropics species diversity of Fabaceae is correlated with temperature (Punyasena et al. Long distance dispersal has often been invoked to explain distributions in Fabaceae, and Schaefer et al. The majority of the species are New World, but there is a single Old World species, H. Both the Mexican and Dominican ambers seem to have been produced by extinct species whose immediate relationships are likely to be with the Old World H. Indeed, some 16 (7% of the total) American-amphitropical disjuncts occur in Fabaceae (Simpson et al. Cercidoideae may be Tethyan in origin, initially favouring seasonally dry habitat (Sinou et al. For monomorphic (different enantiomorphs on the one plant) and dimorphic enantiostyly here, see Almeida et al. Westerkamp (2004) suggests that in some species of both Senna and Chamaecrista the orientation of the anthers is such that the pollen ejected when the flower is vibrated initially misses the bee entirely, but it bounces off the petals and then lands on the bee's back - whence it is removed by the stigma; enantiostyly is an integral part of this remarkable pollination mechanism. The some 105 species of the pantropical/warm temperate Erythrina are pollinated by perching (sun) and hovering (humming) birds. Phylogenetic relationships within Medicago have turned out to be highly reticulating (de Sousa et al. These have recently been published (Legume Phylogeny Working Group 2017), and i.a. (2011); the limits of Derris have been redrawn (Sirichamorn et al. Unique combinations of floral characters can be used to recognize genera around Crotalaria (Le Roux & van Wyk 2012). (2005a, b) for the expanded generic limits of Pultenaea. (2012) suggest that one solution to the unexpected phylogenetic relationships they found in Fabeae might be to include Lens in Vicia and Pisum in Lathyrus... (2018) provide a tribal classification of Detarioideae, which is followed above. (2013b) list the early-branching clades of Faboideae, i.e., those below the NPAAA clade, as well as the genera and numbers of species that they contain. Fabaceae have also been linked with Sapindaceae (e.g. 5 [list]/8 Mostly Australian, also Mexico and the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica (Recchia); Suriana maritima pantropical (map: from van Steenis & van Balgooy 1966 [blue - Suriana maritima]; Flora Base xi.2010). Crown-group Surianaceae are some (50.4-)38.7(-27.0) m.y. (2007/8: Suriana only), and for seed coat anatomy, see Gama-Arachchige et al. Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity. Depending on the context, these characteristics may include biological sex i.e. the state of being male, female, or an intersex variation, sex-based social structures i.e. gender roles, or gender identity. Traditionally, people who identify as men or women or use masculine or.

Bloom Taxonomy - Research Paper - here], interphase microtubules form hoop-like system; metaphase spindle anastral, predictive preprophase band [with microtubules and F-actin; where new cell wall will form], phragmoplast [cell wall deposition centrifugal, from around the anaphase spindle], plasmodesmata ; antheridia and archegonia , jacketed*, surficial; blepharoplast , centrioles develop de novo, bicentriole pair coaxial, separate at midpoint, centrioles rotate, associated with basal bodies of cilia, multilayered structure [4 layers: L1, L4, tubules; L2, L3, short vertical lamellae] (0), spline [tubules from L1 encircling spermatid], basal body 200-250 nm long, associated with amorphous electron-dense material, microtubules in basal end lacking symmetry, stellate array of filaments in transition zone extended, axonemal cap 0 [microtubules disorganized at apex of cilium]; male gametes [spermatozoids] with a left-handed coil, cilia 2, lateral; oogamy; sporophyte *, multicellular, growth 3-dimensional*, cuticle *, plane of first cell division transverse [with respect to long axis of archegonium/embryo sac], sporangium and upper part of seta developing from epibasal cell [towards the archegonial neck, exoscopic], with at least transient apical cell [? In various analyses [S Q] were usually at least moderately supported, but support for Fabaceae and Polygalaceae as being successively sister to that pair was weak (Bello et al. Although the normal orientation is also found in Caesalpinioideae like Ceratonia, the inverted orientation occurs in Cercidoideae (see Tucker 1989; Herendeen et al. 2005), Duparquetia, many Caesalpinioideae, and Faboideae. Duparquetia, near basal in the family, has a highly derived rather papilionoid-looking (but quite differently constructed) flower, while in the Faboideae there are a number of near basal clades that include both taxa with polysymmetric flowers and numerous stamens and taxa with papilionoid flowers (e.g. One way to think about the diversification of Fabaceae and their distribution is in terms of vicariance of biomes rather than of the classical geographical areas (Lavin et al. (2012) estimated that there had been as many as 7 long distance dispersal events per 10 million years in Fabeae alone. Both floral morphology and how the flowers and inflorescences are held varies according the requirements of these different visitors, and there may have been four or more shifts from passerine to hummingbird pollination in the genus, interestingly a number of New World taxa are pollinated by perching birds (orioles, honeycreepers), and their morphology and nectar composition differs from those of the hummingbird-pollinated species (Steiner 1979; Bruneau 1997; Mabberley 2017: summary). is a single-carpellate fruit that dehisces explosively, the two valves of the carpel twisting as they separate down both sides. Within Trifolium the American species form a monophyletic group (Ellison et al. 2016 and references), and the genus perhaps includes Trigonella; for its limits, see Bena (2001), Steele et al. the old Mimosoideae are now to be refered to as "the mimosoid clade" pending clarification of their relationships. (2013) provide a linear sequence of legume genera recognised as of March, 2013. For a sectional classification of the neotropical Swartzia, see Torke and Mansano (2009), for that of an expanded Cytisus, see Cristofilini and Troia (2006), for that of the pantropical Crotalaria, see le Roux et al. ): "Maintaining most familiar generic names and adding relatively few additional segregates that are, for the most part, fairly readily recognizable" seeems best Thompson (2001) provides a careful study of E. Dickison 1981b), here in the malvids, but there is little support other than the common possession of compound leaves and non-protein amino acids for such an association, and with Connaraceae, here in Oxalidales. There has been as much diversification of the ycf4 protein, involved in photosystem 1 assembly, within Lathyrus as there has been between cyanobacteria and other angiosperms (Magee et al. The seeds of Mora megistosperma (Caesalpinieae) are, at ca 18 x 12 cm, perhaps the largest of any broad-leaved angiosperm (Lewis et al. Bloom Taxonomy This Research Paper Bloom Taxonomy and other 64,000+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on Autor review • December 10, 2010 • Research Paper • 1,675 Words 7 Pages • 818 Views

Butterflies - Mimicry = unitegmic ovule, cupule = integument]; pollen lands on ovule; megasporangium indehiscent, megaspore germination endosporic [female gametophyte initially retained on the plant]. (2015) recovered the relationships [Fab [R [C Fag]]] with very good generic sampling while L. it is absent from the chloroplast), but other members of the order have not been studied and its presence in other angiosperms is sporadic (J. Such nectaries have possibly evolved some 35 times, and have also subsequently been lost and even regained (e.g. The close association of Pseudomyrmex ants with some members of the old Acacia subgenus Acacia (= Vachellia), including American swollen-thorn acacias such as V. The plant provides protein-rich Beltian bodies at the ends of each leaflet (for their development, see Rickson 1969: the leaves have notably many leaflets, even for Acacia s.l.) as food for the ants, and the ants also take nectar from the petiolar extrafloral nectaries; the swollen stipular thorns serve as their homes. ORF 184 has been lost many times, especially in the MILL clade, and acc D (= ORF 512, zpf A) has also been lost (Doyle et al. Both the rps16 and ycf4 genes are lost in many Faboideae (Doyle et al. 2007), the former being absent in all members of the IRL clade, but also being lost in four other clades in Faboideae (Schwarz et al. For information on the domestication of soybean (Glycine max), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), pea (Pisum sativum), the azuki bean (Vigna angularis) and relatives, see papers in Ann. For the peanut, Arachis hypogea, an allopolyploid with A. ipaënsis as its probable parents, see Krapovikas and Gregory (1994), for its domestication, see Dillehay et al. (2010), for much information on alfafa, Medicago sativa, see Small (2011), and for the relatives of soybean, see Sherman-Broyles et al. Isoflavonoids, restricted to Faboideae, are involved in plant defence (phytoalexins) and may also play a role in nodulation (Hegnauer & Grayer-Barkmeijer 1993; Reynaud et al. Flavonoids lacking the 5-hydroxy group are characteristic of Fabaceae (Seigler 2003), but I do not know at what level they might be apomorphic. At the base of the clade relationships are [Glycyrrhiza [Wisteria s.l. Mimicry As discussed previously, unpalatable butterflies often have prominent patterns. Experiments have shown that some avian predators can memorise these patterns and learn to avoid eating similarly patterned species in the future.

Wildlife of Sri Lanka - Wikipedia
JSTOR Viewing Subject Biological Sciences
Gender - Wikipedia
Bloom Taxonomy - Research Paper -
Butterflies - Mimicry
Molecular Systematics of the Butterfly Tribe Baorini Lepidoptera.
Caterpillars of Eastern North America A Guide to.
STUDY ON DIVERSITY AND HOST PLANTS OF BUTTERFLIES IN LOWER.
]]

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